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Geography of India objective type

  • The main land of India extends from 8°4 to 37°6 North latitude and 68°7 to 97° 25' East longitude.
  • According to India's total geographical extent 11% is occupied by mountains. 18% by hills, 28% by Plateau, and 43% by plains.
  • According to the geological evolution from ancient to the modern. The chronology as follows: Peninsular India Himalayas. Indo-Gangetic Plain and Thar desert.
  • Including the Islands its coastal boundary is 7516'.5km. The coast of the main land extends to 6,200 km,
  • India is the 7th biggest country in the world according to its area which is 3,287,263 km2.
  • In the north of the Himalayas are located the Zaskar, Ladakh and Karakoram ranges.
  • The Gulf of manner and Palk Strait Separate India from SriLanka.
  • Chotanagpur region is called the Ruhr of India.
  • The Deccan Plateau Was formed in the Cretaceous and early tertiary periods by basic lava emanating from volcanic eruption.
  • The higher lands found in the upper ganga-yamuna do ad are called 'Bhur'
  • The Streams reappear from the Baber region to form the 'Terai'.
  • The riverine island Majuli in the Brahmaputra is the largest riverine island in the world.
  • The main ports on the Western coast are Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Karwar, Mangalore and Cochin.
  • The Peninsular Plateau is 1,'700 km long and 1,400km broad. Its average height is 600m.
  • The long and narrow depressions formed by Fluvial sand and clay are called 'Ghoros'.
  • The Porous region made of pebbles and stones in the foot hills of the Shiwalik are known as 'Baber'.
  • Siwaliks are the youngest ranges of the Himalayas. The valley of these ranges are called 'Duns' or 'Duars'.
  • Himalayas have Burzil, Zojila and Thagla passes. The route between Srinagar and Leh passes through the Zojila pass.
  • The International Boundary extends to 15,200 km. This boundary is longest with respect to China.
  • The networks of rivers in the north of the plains jointed with the Shiwaliks are called 'Chos'.
  • The local name of medical slopes found in the ganga-yamuna Doab are called 'Khols'.
  • The lime concretions are called ‘Kankar’
  • In the eastern part of Kaiburn, Naga and Lushai are considered as extension of the Himalayas.
  • Himalayas have Milam, Gerni, Gangotri and Siachen glaciers. Slachen' glacier is the largest.
  • The height of the Himalayas according to a new survey is 8850m. It is in Nepal. Godwin Austin or K2 is India's highest peak.
  • The middle or lesser Himalayas have Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges and Pir Panjal and Banihal passes. Shimla, Mossouri, Nainital etc. are situated here.
  • From east to west its length is 2,933 km and from north to south its length is 3,214 km.
  • The northern plains are 3,200km long and between 50 to 300km broad. The maximum depth is 2000m.
  • India is divided into five Physiographic units on the basis of natural division and relief.
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, the Shiwallks are known as Dafla, Mishmi, Abor and Miri hills.
  • It is a region of Black Soil. The black color is due to the presence of Titani ferrous Magnetite.
  • Lakshadweep is a coral island and has a total of 36 islands
  • Despite being in the tropical zone. India possesses a monsoonal climate due to the barrier effect of the Himalayas.
  • The south west monsoon occurs from June to September, it has two branches (i) Bay of Bengal, (ii) Arabian Sea.
  • Norwester's or 'Kaalbaisakhi' are local winds that given rainfall in the dry season in West Bengal. These cyclonic rainfalls are called 'Mango showers' in South.
  • Western Ghats or Sahayadris are 1,600km long and have an average height of 900 -1000m.The main hills found here are Nilgris. Anaimalai, Plani and Cardamon hills. The main passes found here are Thalghat, Palghat and
  • Bherghat. The highest peak here is Anaimudi (2695m).
  • The Dharwar rocks found here have the maximum concentrations of minerals.
  • The older Alluvium are called 'Bhangar' and the Newer Alluvium are called 'Khadar' or 'Bet'.
  • The eastern Ghats are 1 ,300km long and have an average height of 615m. from south to north the hills are known as Nilgiris, Nallamalai, Jawadi and Sheorai hills.
  • The maximum average rainfall is recorded in Mawsynram in Meghalaya.
  • The eastern disturbances cause rainfall in the north western plains during winter.
  • India's Southern most point, the Indira or Pygmalion point as it was called earlier is in the Nicobar, cluster of islands
  • The north east monsoon occurs from December to February. Only the coasts of Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall.
  • Other prominent lakes are Dal Lake (Kashmir), Udaisagar, Rajsamand, Jaisamand (Rajasthan), Loktak (Manipur), Vembanad (Kcrala), Hussain Sagar (Andhra Pradesh).
  • The main ports of the eastern coast are Paradeep, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai and Tuticorin etc.
  • The retreating monsoon is the retreat of South West monsoon 'by mid-September. The coastal areas of Tamil Nadu get rainfall from this monsoon.
  • The highest lake of the Himalayas is Devtaal.
  • Kharif crops is sown in the month of July and harvested in October.
  • Kharif crops includes - Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Sugarcane, Scasamum, Soyabean, Groundnut.
  • Rabi crops is sown in October last and harvested in March to April.
  • Ravi crops includes wheat, barley, tur, mustard, rapeseed,
  • Oil seed crops - Groundnut, mustard, Castor, sunflower, Niger seed, Soya been.
  • Sugar crops - Sugarcane and beet.
  • Fibre crops - Jute, Mesta, cotton.
  • Narcotic crop - Tobacco.
  • Beverage crops - Tea, coffee.
  • Green Revolution is related with the use of HYVS.
  • HYVS - High Yielding Variety Seeds.
  • Green Revolution takes place during 1960.
  • White revolution is related with a sharp increase in milk production.
  • White revolution takes place during the year of 1964-65.
  • 'Operation Flood' is a programmer in white Revolution.
  • India stands first in the world in milk production.
  • Dr. Varghese Kurien is the pioneer of operation flood in India.
  • The first paper mill was opened at Serampore in West Bengal in 1840 but it failed. A successful mill was established at Bally in 1867.
  • The first woolen mill was opened in 1855 in Kanpur,
  • The units of Hindustan Machine Tools function at Bangalore, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamesari (Kerala) and Hyderabad.
  • The first cotton mill was opened in 1818 in fort Glocester in Calcutta. The first modern mill was opened in Bombay in 1854.
  • The first cement factory was established at Madras in 1904.
  • The first jute mill was opened in 1855, Rishra at Calcutta.
  • The first silk industry was opened in 1832 at Calcutta.
  • The first Rayon mill was opened in Rayanpuram at Kerala in 1950.
  • The Heavy Engineering Corporation was set up at Ranchi in 1958.
  • The first fertilizer factory was started in 1938 at Belagula
  • The first iron and steel works was opened in Kulti in 1870. The first modern plant was set up in Sakchi in Jamshcdpur in 1907.
  • The first rubber factory was established in 1920.

    Mineral Production in India

  • Apatite: West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh
  • Asbestos: Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh
  • Barytes: , Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan
  • Chromite: Orissa, Maharashtra and Karnataka
  • Coal: Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Orissa
  • Bauxite: Gujarat, Orissa and Jharkhand
  • Lignite: Rajasthan , Tamil Nadu and Gujarat
  • Copper: Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Sikkim
  • Gold: Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
  • Diamond: Madhya Pradesh
  • Dolomite: Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh
  • Feldspar: Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
  • Graphite: Jharkhand , Orissa and Tamil Nadu
  • Iron Ore: Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka and Jharkhand
  • Gypsum: Rajasthan, Gujarat and Jammu Kashmir
  • Magnasite: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Uttaranchal
  • Manganese: Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
  • Mica: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand
  • Petroleum: Maharashtra, Gujarat and Assam
  • Natural Gas: Maharashtra, Gujarat and Assam
  • Silver: Gujarat and Jharkhand
  • Sulphur: Haryana and Gujarat
  • Tin: Chhattisgarh
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